Nanotechnology Laboratory Principles and Procedures

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Nanotechnology is a design, fabrication and application of
nanostructures or nanomaterials, and the fundamental
understanding of relationships between physical properties or phenomena and material dimensions. It also deals with the materials or structures in nanometer scales, typically ranging from sub nanometers to several hundred nanometers. One nanometer is -3 -9 10 micrometer or 10 meter. Nanotechnology is new field or a new scientific  domain. Similar to quantum mechanics, on a nanometer scale materials or structures may possess new physical properties or exhibit new physical phenomena. In order to explore novel physical properties and phenomena and realize potential applications of nanostructures and nanomaterials, the ability to fabricate and process nanomaterials and nanostructures is the first cornerstone in nanotechnology.


ISBN: 93-80387-09-1


In nanotechnology laboratory, two approaches To down and bottom-up have been used to fabricate nanostructures. The top-down approach often uses the traditional workshop or micro fabrication methods where externally-controlled tools are used to cut, mill, and shape materials into the desired shape and order. Micropatterning techniques, such as photolithography and inkjet printing belong to this category. In Bottom-up molecule components to (a) self-organize or self-assemble into some useful conformation, or (b) rely on positional assembly. These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or molecular recognition. Nanostructures are defined as structures having at least one dimension between 1 and 100nm. This book covers the synthesis and fabrication of nanostructures based on dimensions. Various laboratory procedures for the synthesis of zero-dimensional nanostructures such as nanoparticles are described here in detail. One dimensional nanostructures such nanowires, nanorods, nanobelts, nanotubes, and nanoribbons are synthesized by spontaneous growth and template-based synthesis methods. Two-dimensional nanostructures such as thin films are developed by various film growth techniques. Vacuum technology-based methods and liquid-based growth methods are explained thoroughly here. Important nanostructures such as fullerene, mesoporous material, zeolites, and core shell structures synthesis methods have been discussed in this book. With the procedures, applications are also explained.


This book comprises three chapters:

  • Chapter 1 describes about the various laboratory procedures for synthesis of zero  dimensional nanostructures such as nanoparticles. Quantum dot is one of the important zero dimensional nanostructures, thus synthesis of quantum dot has been discussed. With the properties of zero dimensional nanostructure, applications of nanoparticles have been explained in detail.
  • Chapter 2 introduces about one dimensional nanostructures. Laboratory procedures to synthesize 1-D nanostructures such as spontaneous growth, template based synthesis and electro spinning procedures are discussed thoroughly with examples in this chapter. Applications of 1-D nanostructures are also explained in this chapter.
  • Chapter 3 presents various synthesis procedures of 2-D nanostructures. It explains the fundamentals of film growth and vacuum science. Various vapor phase depositions  growth procedures and various liquid based growth procedures have been explained in this chapter. Important nanostructures such as fullerenes, carbon Nanotubes, mesoporous materials, zeolites and core shell structures are discussed with their synthesis methods and applications.